Non-DOT Industries

Retail Employee Drug Testing

Retail employees are everywhere: grocery stores, jewelry stores, malls, electronic stores, fashion boutiques and bookstores. These employees hold titles such as, Cashier, Store Managers, Key Holder, Sales Associate, Visual Merchandiser, Stock Associate, Inventory Manager, among others. The Retail Industry makes up a large portion of America’s workforce due to its broad range of positions and company types. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, drug use costs employers between $75 billion and $100 billion each year in lost time, accidents, health care and workers’ compensation costs.

Rates of substance abuse among workers employed in several different areas of retail are as follows:


Current Illicit Drug Use (%)

Past Year Illicit Drug Use (%)

Current Heavy Alcohol Use (%)

Apparel and Shoe Stores




Auto Supply Stores and Gas Stations




Department Stores




Eating and Drinking Places




Furniture and Appliance Stores




Grocery Stores




Other Retail Stores




 Source: SAPAA

Retail Industry Drug Testing Retail employees are responsible for representing the company as the often first line of connection between staff and the customer. These employees are trusted with the company reputation, money and inventory on a daily basis. Retail employees using and abusing drugs and alcohol are putting the entire business at risk.

A Federal government survey revealed workplace substance abuse is a significant problem in the retail industry. Among full-time retail employees between the ages of 18 and 49:

  • 10.8 percent report that they have used illicit drugs in the past month.
  • About 22 percent report that they have used illicit drugs in the last year.
  • 8.8 percent report heavy alcohol use.

Rates of substance abuse among retail workers compared to other industries: 

Drug Abuse: Retail Employees 18-64

Retail Industry (%)

All Industries Average (%)

Illicit Drug Use



Heavy Alcohol Use



Illicit Drug Dependence or Abuse



Alcohol Dependence or Abuse



Source: SAPAA


According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy’s 2012 National Report, “The consequences of illicit drug use in America’s workforce include job-related accidents and injuries, absenteeism, health care costs, and lost productivity. Workplace programs that provide clear policies regarding drug use; offer prevention and education opportunities for employers and supervisors; conduct drug testing to detect and deter use; and support referral and treatment for those who have substance use disorders can play a large role in reducing the demand for drugs throughout our Nation and in helping drug users get into treatment.” Implementing an effective drug testing program will help protect your reputation, your company and your entire staff.

For more information, click here to be contacted by an DISA expert.

Intern Drug Testing

College Student drug testing You want to maintain a safe and productive workplace for your staff and interns. In addition to your staff, your interns have the right to work and learn in an alcohol and drug-free environment. Your entire staff, including paid and unpaid interns, should be able to complete assignments alongside co-workers in a drug-free state of being.


Any employees using alcohol and/or illegal drugs increase the potential for accidents/injuries, absenteeism, poor performance, low morale and even damage to your company’s reputation. Unfortunately, the rate of drug and alcohol use among college students is high.

Much like regular employees, it is critical for interns to understand your company’s rules on drug and alcohol use, and any consequences of violations. This can be achieved through an Internship Program Substance Abuse Testing Policy, and implementing an effective drug and alcohol testing program.

  The best internship drug testing policies include, but are not limited to, answers to the following questions:

  1. What is the purpose/goal of your policy?
  2. Who will be covered by your policy?
  3. When will your policy apply?
  4. What behavior will be prohibited?
  5. Will employees be required to notify you of drug-related convictions?
  6. Will your policy include searches?
  7. What method(s) of drug testing is to be expected?
  8. What will the consequences be if your policy is violated?
  9. How will employee confidentiality be protected?
  10. Who will be responsible for enforcing your policy?
  11. How will your policy be communicated to employees?

Best Practice Suggestions for an Effective Internship Substance Abuse Testing Program:

Implementing an effective drug and alcohol testing program is a proven method of protecting your workplace and staff. Extending that protection to students interning with your company is not only responsible, but commendable. Schools and families are trusting your company to provide education and experience in a safe environment. Furthermore, you are trusting the student with your company reputation.

Click here to be contacted by an DISA expert. We are here to help.

Construction Industry Drug Testing

Drug and alcohol use in the Construction Industry is not only irresponsible; it is dangerous. Accidents caused by poor decision-making and slowed reaction times from drugs and/or alcohol can cause serious trouble. According to the latest National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the construction industry has the highest rates of workplace drug use. 


Drug Abuse By Industry – Construction


Current Illicit Drug Use (%)

Current Heavy Alcohol Use (%)

Construction Laborers



Construction Supervisors



Other Construction Workers



Source: US Department of Labor

Types of laborers in this field include roofers, sheet metal workers, carpenters, building inspectors, drywall installers, masons, drill operators and painters. In most positions and most companies, accidents in the construction industry are a reality. Carpenters face very high injury rates including muscle strains, ladder falls, and cuts from sharp objects and tools. Roofers are also at high risk for injuries. Falling from roofs, burns from hot bitumen and heat illnesses from hot weather are all possible dangers. Sheet metal workers face major danger from welding and sharp metal cuts, and painters face risks including ladder falls and exposure to harmful irritants. 

Construction Industry Drug Testing

 Employees in the construction industry are in danger every day. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) defines the “Fatal Four” construction worker fatalities as the following: 

     • Falls–  (35%)

     • Electrocutions –  (9%)

     • Struck by Object –  (10%)

     • Caught-in/between –  (3%)


Substance abuse is a factor in 35 percent of workplace injuries and fatalities, 35 percent of all absences, 38 percent to 50 percent of all workers’ compensation claims and 40 percent of thefts, according to the Eighth Special Report to the US Congress on Alcohol and Health, and the US Department of Labor

Construction Industry Drug Testing

Construction workers are recorded as those using drugs and alcohol the most, by the US Department of Labor. These laborers are at risk just by carrying out their job requirements. Substance use is only increasing those risks, which affects OSHA safety, overall job safety, and work efficiency. Drugs commonly abused include marijuana, heroin, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cocaine, opiates, amphetamine and high amounts of alcohol. Occupational Drug Testing, a DISA company, can fully customize drug screen panels to detect any of these drugs, as well as additional substances. 

These workers are working at all kinds of locations, usually at different places throughout the year. After pre-employment testing to screen reliable hires, random drug and alcohol testing on-site is an excellent strategy to use in keeping work-sites safe. 24/7 emergency testing, post-accident testing, and reasonable suspicion testing is a convenient way to test these workers anywhere, at any time. Whether the job site is in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Vermont, Connecticut, southern Maine or Rhode Island, ODT on-site mobile testing units can turn any work location into a secure drug and alcohol collection site. 


Workers within this industry could fall under regulation by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. Click here for FMCSA testing requirements.

Click Here for 29 CFR 1926, OSHA Safety and Health Regulations for Construction

For more information on reducing workers’ compensation claims, avoiding recklessness, lawsuits and more, contact Occupational Drug Testing.

Healthcare Industry Drug Testing

Slip-ups and mistakes caused by drug-use are inexcusable in the Healthcare Industry and could be fatal. Healthcare professionals are the hands in which we put our health and future in, and those hands need to be steady.

Nurse Addiction

Substance abuse by nurses, physicians and any hospital employee directly compromises the safety of patients. Additional to potential recreational drug use, dangerous drugs used for sedation and pain management in the healthcare industry are readily available to these employees.

The American Association of Nurse Anesthetists reported that the addiction rate among anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists exceeded 15 percent. An anonymous survey of drug abuse among Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) found that 10 percent of CRNAs reported abuse of the controlled drugs used in their practice.

Other studies estimate that nurses generally misuse drugs and alcohol at nearly the same rate (10 to 15 percent) as the rest of the population.

Approximately 12-15% of all physicians and nurses will experience substance abuse issues at some point during their career, and these statistics are very much in line with the levels of addiction that have been found among the public as a whole.

A study conducted by the University of Washington found about 15 percent of surgeons have alcohol abuse or dependency problems. Also, approximately 14 percent of male surgeons and 25 percent of female surgeons showed signs of alcohol dependencies.


The substances which are generally abused by those in the healthcare industry are as follows:

Sedatives– Diprivan© (Propofol)

Benzodiazepines– Xanax© (alprazolam), Librium© (chlordiazepoxide), Valium© (diazepam), Klonopin© (Clonazepam), Halcion© (triazolam), and Ativan© (lorazepam)

Barbiturates- Amytal© (amobarbital sodium), Nembutal© (pentobarbital sodium), Seconal© (secobarbital sodium), and Phenobarbital

Opiates/Narcotics- i.e., painkillers: Vicodin© (hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen), Percocet© (oxycodone and acetaminophen) , OxyContin©(oxycodone hydrochloride), Dilaudid© (hydromorphone), Morphine (Roxanol, Dura morphine, morphine sulfate, morphine hydrochloride), Methadone (synthetic narcotic) Demerol© (meperidine hydrochloride), Fentanyl (Sublimaze©, Actiq©, Duragesic©), Ultram© (tramadol hydrochloride), and Codeine

Stimulants- Cocaine, Amphetamines, Methamphetamines, Methylphenidate, MDMA (methylenedioxy-methamphetamine)

Cannabinoids- Hashish, Marijuana

Addicted Doctors


Click to learn more about the statistics of drug use and abuse in the Healthcare industry today.

Testing healthcare employees with basic 5 and 10-panel tests will not cover the commonly used and readily available substances. A Healthcare Professional Profile (HPP) is the most comprehensive type of test available and the most relevant in this type of drug screening.

The HPP has the capability of detecting the following substance categories:

Amphetamines, Barbiturates, Cocaine Metabolite, Marijuana Metabolite, Methadone, PCP, Propoxyphene, Opiates, Benzodiazepines, Fentanyl, Meperidine, Tramadol, Adulterants, Alcohol, Narcotics, Antidepressants, and Stimulants.

For answers to any questions, contact Occupational Drug Testing today. We are here to help. 


Drug Testing in Schools

Schools and school buses are meant to be drug-free.  Schools are safe places for children and young adults to learn and be protected by trusted professionals. Bus Drivers going to and coming from school are trusted by parents and guardians to deliver these young people to and from their day at school, and a drug-free environment is critical.

According to a national survey performed by SAMHSA, 4 percent of those working in education, training, and library operations had past month illicit drug use. Although this statistic is lower than other occupations, such as construction, it’s still an unfortunate reality that schools aren’t always drug-free. Teachers are self-medicating and dealing with stress by using alcohol, prescription pain relievers, anti-depressants, and marijuana, according to experts on substance abuse.  There are more and more stories surfacing about teachersdaycare employees and coaches abusing illegal substances and endangering students.


Drug Testing Bus Drivers

Students are transported to and from school/athletic games and field trips. These employees have several responsibilities which require a clear mind:

  • Ensure the safety of all passengers
  • Maintain order and discipline among students
  • Deal with bad weather, heavy traffic, and other driving hazards
  • Exercise caution with boarding and de-boarding students

School bus drivers are required by the United States Department of Transportation to abstain from alcohol and drugs when driving school buses. DOT requires all CDL drivers to be tested for the following:

  •  Marijuana
  • Cocaine
  • Opiates
  • Amphetamines (amphetamines and methamphetamines)
  • Phencyclidine (PCP)

Although all CDL holders are mandated by FMCSA to be tested, not all school districts test at the required times. Pre-employment testing, post-accident testing, reasonable suspicion testing, and random testing are all mandatory tests.

Drug Testing Students 

Highschool Drug UseAbout 17 percent of American high school students are drinking, smoking or using drugs during the school day, according to a new study by the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse. The study revealed that nearly 44 percent of students told survey-takers they know a classmate who sells drugs. Marijuana was the easiest drug to come by, followed by prescription drugs, cocaine, and ecstasy. A newer form of ecstasy known as “Molly” is rapidly gaining popularity among high schoolers due to its easy-to-take pill form and its references among popular songs.

Some schools (at least 16.5%) have begun drug testing students, while other parents are turning to privately drug testing their children.


Highschool Student Drug Use Facts:

In 2012, 6.5 percent of 8th graders, 17.0 percent of 10th graders, and 22.9 percent of 12th graders used marijuana in the past month—an increase among 10th and 12th graders from 14.2 percent, and 18.8 percent in 2007. Daily use has also increased; 6.5 percent of 12th graders now use marijuana every day, compared to 5.1 percent in 2007.

Based on a survey of 47,000 8th, 10th and 12th-graders conducted by researchers at the University of Michigan on behalf of the NIDA, one out of every 15 high school seniors smokes marijuana on a daily or near-daily basis.

Read More on the drug and alcohol use among high school students.


For more information, please contact Occupational Drug Testing. We are here to help.

Utilities Industry Drug Testing

Companies within the utility industry provide natural gas, electric power, steam supply, water supply, and sewage removal through an impressive infrastructure of lines, mains, and pipes throughout the country. The men and women working for these companies are responsible for the development and maintenance of this permanent system, which we all rely on every day. Not only is a clear, drug-free mind necessary for effective job performance, but in this line of work, safety is critical.

Drug and Alcohol Testing in the Utilities Industry

Employees in the utility industry are responsible for a multitude of safety-sensitive tasks. One could be making decisions as a Control Room Operator, carefully leading a group as a Dispatcher, fixing electrical wires high above the ground as a Lineman, using harsh chemicals/high-pressure water for fracking, or handling dangerous tools as an Explosives Technician.

Dangers facing utility workers such as well drillers, plant operators, drivers, linemen, journeymen, crane operators, field technicians, and others:

• Extreme temperatures

• Falling from heights

• Slips and falls

• Electrocution

• Radioactive material exposure

• Dangerous chemical exposure

• Extremely loud noises

• Harmful Gases


Mobile on-location drug and alcohol testing is a convenient way to randomly test employees in these positions, or test for reasonable suspicion and/or after accidents. The dangers affiliated with these positions are already daunting. Substance use will only make it worse.

Another solution for a drug-free company is pre-employment drug testing. This type of employee drug testing is an easy way to filter out undesirable potential employees.


For answers to any questions, please contact Occupational Drug Testing today. We are here to help. 




Restaurant Industry Drug Testing

In the Food and Beverage Industry, the FDA enforces strict health code rules that are to be followed meticulously, checked by a Health Department professional. Unfortunately, health regulations aren’t the only thing restaurant employers need to be concerned with. According to the Department of Health and Human Services, workers in the Food and Beverage industry have the highest rates of drug use.

At a rate of 17.4 overall percent of restaurant workers using illegal drugs, the jobs of food preparation (cooks and prep cooks), serving (waiting tables), and bartending, use illegal drugs at twice the national average.


Illicit Drug Use %
Past Year
Illicit Drug Use %
Current Heavy
Illicit Drug Use %
Food Preparers
Grounds Keepers



According to the United States Department of Labor, 10 to 20 percent of U.S. workers involved in fatal on-the-job accidents tested positive for illicit drugs and alcohol, and drug abuse in the workplace costs employers approximately $81 billion each year in lost productivity. Many companies use pre-employment drug testing to help filter out prospective employees who might be potential drug users, in order to avoid accidents and reduce employee turnover. Furthermore, random drug screens are an effective way to maintain a trustworthy staff after initial hire.

Make sure your employees are following your rules to be drug and alcohol-free. The experts at Occupational Drug Testing can be the professionals checking on your employees, to keep your operation running smoothly, safely, and drug-free.


For more information, or to be contacted by an Occupational Drug Testing representative, click here


Manufacturing Industry Drug Testing

According to an official Drug and Alcohol Testing Industry Association national study, one-fifth of (19%) of companies experienced an increase in employee productivity after the implementation of a drug testing program, employers with high absenteeism rates (more than 15%) reported a decreased rate, over 56% of companies with high worker’s compensation incidence rates reported a significant drop in claims, and 16% of companies reported a net employee turnover decrease.


The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported a total of 4,609 fatal occupational injuries by major event in 2011, with the manufacturing sector listed as one of the most dangerous.  Employees working in the manufacturing industry are faced with a multitude of risks, including slips/trips/falls, operating hazardous machinery and exposure to harmful chemicals and acids. A company operating in this risky industry without an effective drug and alcohol testing program in place is not taking the right steps toward creating and maintaining a safe workplace.


The National Survey on Drug Use and Health of 2011 found that about half of the adults aged 18 or older with substance dependence or abuse were employed full time in 2011. Of the 18.9 million adults in the U.S. classified with substance dependence or abuse, 9.8 million (51.8%) were full-time employees.  Pre-employment drug testing can help screen out hiring possible substance users, and random drug testing will detect drug use throughout the worker’s employment time.


Drug Abuse By Industry – Manufacturing


Current Illicit Drug Use (%)

Current Heavy Alcohol Use (%)

Electrical Machinery



Lumber and Wood Products






Metal Industries



Professional Equipment



Transportation Equipment



Source: US Department of Labor


For more information, contact Occupational Drug Testing.


Maritime Industry Drug Testing

The US Water Transportation Industry serves the needs of both foreign and domestic commerce. Companies within this industry carry freight or passengers in the open seas or inland waterways, offer towing services, charter vessels, and operate canals and terminals.  Other occupations are within the US Naval Reserve, the Merchant Marine Reserve, and the US Coast Guard.

A large focus of this industry is safety. This administration maintains a fleet of cargo ships in reserve to provide surge sealift during a war and national emergencies.

Common maritime jobs include; Captains, Navigation Officers, Cargo Handlers, Engineers, Food Service Worker, Sanitation Employees, Ship Builders, etc.  In 2010, there were about 82,600 water transportation jobs held in the US. Most of these employees work within the following categories:


Water Transportation Jobs 

Category Type 

Percent of Industry

Inland Water Transportation


Support Activities for Water Transportation


Deep Sea, Coastal and Great Lakes Water Transportation




Scenic and Sightseeing Water Transportation


Source: US DOT


An employee who falls under  US Coast Guard regulations is, “a person who is on board a vessel acting under the authority of a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document. Also a person engaged or employed on board a US-owned vessel and such vessel is required to engage, employ or be operated by a person holding a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariner’s document.”

All mariners working on ships with U.S. flags must have a Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. This credential states that a person is a U.S. citizen or permanent resident and has passed a security screening. If you are required to enroll for a TWIC card or TWIC card renewal and are in the Boston area, Occupational Drug Testing has a TWIC Enrollment Center in Waltham, MA.


For answers to any questions, contact us today. We are here to help.

Technology Industry Drug Testing

The employees working within the Information Technology (IT) Industry provide us with all kinds of information, innovations and more. These workers also help companies with computer and website-related issues. Often, IT men and women handle sensitive information in databases and within company servers, which means they need to be trustworthy professionals.


The Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology (IT) as “the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems”. These employees automate business processes, provide insights for decision making, connect businesses with their customers, and provide productivity tools to increase efficiency.


Illicit Drug Use %
Past Year
Illicit Drug Use %
Current Heavy
Illicit Drug Use %
Computer Scientists/Analysts
Computer Programmer/Operators
Computer and Data Processors


The best way to be sure this vital industry is running smoothly and as efficient as possible is to make use of the professional services we offer at Occupational Drug Testing. Let ODT make sure you hire and keep the best employees possible.



To learn more about workplace drug and alcohol testing, contact Occupational Drug Testing.

Transportation Industry Drug Testing

It would be an understatement to say that drugs in the Transportation Industry are dangerous. A drug-free environment in this industry protects your employees, passengers, your cargo, and yourself from expensive lawsuits. Find out how you’re federally mandated by the Department of Transportation here.

National Transportation Safety Board Transportation Fatalities in 2011

Industry Sub-Sectors

Air and express delivery services (EDS): Firms offer expedited, time-sensitive and end-to-end services for documents, small parcels and high-value items. EDS firms also provide the export infrastructure for many exporters, particularly small- and medium-sized businesses that cannot afford to operate their own supply chain.

FAA Drug Testing Requirements:

49 CFR Part 120

Freight rail: High volumes of heavy cargo and products are transported over long distances via the U.S. rail tracking network. Freight rail moves 72 percent of the nation’s coal, 58 percent of its raw metal ores, and 31 percent of its grain, and accounted for approximately one third of all U.S. exports.


FRA Drug Testing Requirements:

49 CFR Part 219

Logistics services: This subsector includes inbound and outbound transportation management, fleet management, warehousing, materials handling, order fulfillment, logistics network design, inventory management, supply and demand planning, third-party logistics management and other support services. Logistics services are involved at all levels in the planning and execution of the movement of goods.
Maritime: This subsector includes carriers, seaports, terminals and labor involved in the movement of cargo and passengers by water. In 2009, water transportation carried 78 percent of U.S. goods exports by tonnage and 36.9 percent of U.S. goods exports by value, via U.S.-flag and foreign-flag carriers.


USCG Drug Testing Requirements: 46 CFR Part 16

Trucking: Over-the-road transportation of cargo is provided by motor vehicles over short and medium distances. The American Trucking Associations reports that in 2009, trucks moved 8.8 billion tons of freight, or about 68 percent of all freight tonnage transported domestically, and motor carriers collected $544 billion in revenues, or 81.9 percent of total revenue earned by all domestic transport modes. 1

 FMCSA Drug Testing Requirements: 49 CFR Part 382


Bureau of Labor Statistics IIF Program: Transportation 

Data Series







Number of fatalities

  498  389  418  474

Rate of Injury and Illness Cases per 100 Full-Time Workers


Total recordable cases


 4.6  5.0  4.9

Cases involving days away from work, job restriction, or transfer


 3.0   3.3   3.2

Cases involving days away from work  


 2.3  2.4  2.3

Cases involving days of job transfer or restriction


 0.7  0.9   0.9


For more information, contact Occupational Drug Testing.



1  Department of Commerce

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